How does recaptcha know you aren’t entering bogus translations of the pictures [closed]

This question has received: 22 Votes.

From what I understand, Captchas are text that have been distorted by the application of filters, noise and other miscelaneous algorithms. Therefore, to find out whether the person’s reading ability is that of a person, you compare what they answered to what the known answer is.

Now, reading up on ReCaptcha, it says that the words that are displayed are those that cannot be translated by OCR. In addition, recaptcha is being used to translate those images. How can it tell whether you are indeed right in your reading or are just making stuff up?

If it knew what it said, it wouldn’t be used in recaptcha as translation material. If it doesn’t know what the text says, then how does it validate your answer?

I’m guessing this is probably some probability based analysis with huge sample sizes before it flags anything as translated.

Does anyone know where the answer to this is?

Sat Oct 01 02:26:04 AST 2011
Answer #: 1
This answer has received: 33 Votes.

Book pages are basically photographically scanned, and then transformed into text using “Optical Character Recognition” (OCR) and fed to the web in the form of an image with one word that is known to the computer program behind reCAPTCHA and one word that is not yet known.

The user then types both words out and if they solve the one for which the answer is known, the system assumes their answer is correct for the new one. The system then gives the new image to a number of other people to determine, with higher confidence, whether the original answer was correct. Therefore, the system is a self-improving service that gets better with time.

Sat Oct 01 02:50:29 AST 2011
Answer #: 2
This answer has received: 22 Votes.

This is why reCaptcha has you enter two words. One of the words is already known, and one of the words is not known. Whether you pass or fail the captcha only depends on how you answer for the word that is known. Your answer for the other (unknown) word will be used, along with other responses to the same word, to turn it into a known word as well.

Sat Oct 01 03:02:09 AST 2011

How do I get the size of a Linux or Mac OS X directory from the command-line? [duplicate]

This question has received: 30 Votes.

This question already has an answer here:

What command do I use to find the size of all the files (recursively) in a Linux or Mac OS X directory?

Thu Aug 13 20:00:15 AST 2009
Answer #: 1
This answer has received: 22 Votes.

The BSD version of du used in OS X reports size with 512-byte blocks — the sizes are essentially rounded up to the next 512-byte value. This tells you the space on disk, which is larger than the amount of data. If you have a lot of small files, the difference can be large.

Here’s an example.

This is the value with regular du. It’s in 512-byte blocks:

$ du -s
248   .

The -h flag results in a more readable number, in kilobytes. As expected, it’s half the number of 512-byte blocks:

$ du -hs
124K  .

Finally, you can use find and awk to give you the sum of actual bytes in the files. This is kind of slow, but it works:

$ find . -type f -exec ls -l {} \; | awk '{sum += $5} END {print sum}'

This value matches exactly the number reported by Finder’s Get Info window. (There are no weird forks or xattrs in this set of files.) It’s significantly smaller than the value reported by du.

Here’s how it works: it gets a list of all the files, and passes them to ls -l; then awk is used to count up the bytes. The -type f flag is there so that only files (and not directories) get sent to ls. Without that flag, it’ll also send directory names to ls, and each file will be listed twice : once as an individual file, and once as an item in the directory.

The GNU version of du can give values in actual bytes instead of blocks. It’s unfortunate that the BSD version of du is not as flexible.

Sun Mar 18 05:54:47 AST 2012
Answer #: 2
This answer has received: 43 Votes.

Show the size of a single file

du -h path_to_a_file

Show the size of the contents of a directory, each sub-directory, and each individual file:

du -h path_to_a_directory

Show the size of the contents of a directory:

du -sh path_to_a_directory

Mon Jun 27 02:25:30 AST 2011
Answer #: 3
This answer has received: 5 Votes.

du – tells the disk use not the file size.

find . -type f -print0 | xargs -0 stat -f%z | awk '{b+=$1} END {print b}'

above terminal code (im on osx 10.6) offers for me the best result and is waaay faster than “find … -exec”

a quick benchmark

time find . -type f -print0 | xargs -0 stat -f'%z' | awk '{b+=$1} END {print b}'

real    0m0.086s
user    0m0.029s
sys 0m0.073s

time find . -type f -exec ls -l {} \; | awk '{sum += $5} END {print sum}'

real    0m18.515s
user    0m2.929s
sys 0m9.339s
Mon Nov 11 22:38:46 AST 2013
Answer #: 4
This answer has received: 1 Votes.

I combined all your approuches and combined it with a human readable output the result is:

find $1 -type f -print0 | xargs -0 stat -f'%z' | awk '{b+=$1} END {print b}' | awk '{ sum=$1 ; hum[1024**3]="Gb";hum[1024**2]="Mb";hum[1024]="Kb"; for (x=1024**3; x>=1024; x/=1024){ if (sum>=x) { printf "%.2f %s\n",sum/x,hum[x];break } }}'

Link to the gist:

Wed Mar 05 11:30:06 AST 2014
Answer #: 5
This answer has received: 1 Votes.

You can use du -ah . which displays sizes of all files and directories recursively.

This can be combined with sort, so you’ll see the top-20 biggest directories in the current folder:

du -ah . | sort -rh | head -20

Note: Option -h for sort is not available on OSX/BSD, so you’ve to install sort from coreutils (e.g. via brew) and apply the bin path to PATH, e.g.

export PATH="/usr/local/opt/coreutils/libexec/gnubin:$PATH" # Add a "gnubin" for coreutils.

Otherwise use:

du -a . | sort -rn | head -20
Thu Mar 05 14:03:07 AST 2015

Where is a database shape in Visio?

This question has received: 26 Votes.

I am trying to document an architecture in Visio, and I can’t find a shape for a database. I see servers, clients, etc. – but no database.

Sat Feb 13 20:22:14 AST 2010
Answer #: 1
This answer has received: 62 Votes.

I think the user was asking about finding a database stencil, rather than looking to generate a Visio document for an existing database.

If that is correct, I believe the desired shape can be found under: File -> Shapes -> Flowchart -> Miscellaneous Flowchart Shapes


P.S. Sorry for posting to an old thread, but Google brought me he with a similar question and, once I found the answer, I thought I would share.

Tue Dec 13 14:12:19 AST 2011
Answer #: 2
This answer has received: 5 Votes.

On Visio 2010, there is a Database relational shape in Network – Network Symbols. In italian, Altre forme – Rete – Simboli Rete . There is a Database relational shape that is perfect.

Tue Oct 23 13:31:33 AST 2012
Answer #: 3
This answer has received: 4 Votes.

Which version do you have? Because it’s not included in all version.

  • Standard : This edition does not include the Database Model Diagram template.

  • Professional: This edition supports the reverse engineering features for the Database Model Diagram template (that is, using an existing database to create a model in Visio) but does not support forward engineering (that is, using a Visio database model to generate SQL code).

  • Enterprise Architect: This edition, which is included in Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003 Enterprise Architect, supports the full suite of database modeling features, including both reverse engineering and forward engineering.


Sat Feb 13 20:29:14 AST 2010
Answer #: 4
This answer has received: 1 Votes.

Can also be found under Shapes -> Software & Database -> Software -> Common Icons.

Mon Sep 02 08:54:01 AST 2013
Answer #: 5
This answer has received: 1 Votes.

For a basic, upright cylinder:

Shapes -> Software and Database -> Software -> Enterprise Application

The shape is titled “Datastore”.

Thu Nov 20 20:19:29 AST 2014
Answer #: 6
This answer has received: 0 Votes.

Here’s an alternative:

There’s an option of a grey or white database shape here.

Mon Mar 02 03:22:03 AST 2015
This question and its answers are found at: Where is a database shape in Visio?

How do you extract/install from an .iso file?

This question has received: 24 Votes.

I’ve downloaded an .iso file but don’t have a DVD writer at the moment – is there a recommended Virtual DVD drive that I can use to install from the .iso file?

Sun Aug 02 18:49:26 AST 2009
Answer #: 1
This answer has received: 25 Votes.

Without knowing exactly what operating system you’re running, I recommend using either VirtualCloneDrive or Magic Disc. Both are free and work on just about any version of Windows (including 64-bit versions). Plus they don’t have the crapware that Daemon Tools tries to shove down your throat.

Sun Aug 02 18:53:27 AST 2009
Answer #: 2
This answer has received: 19 Votes.

7-Zip will open ISOs too (as well as being generally superb.)

Sun Aug 02 21:31:57 AST 2009
Answer #: 3
This answer has received: 7 Votes.

Assuming Windows, you can try Daemon Tools.

In Linux you can mount an ISO similarly to the way you mount other volumes:

mount -o loop -t iso9660 file.iso /mnt/test

Alternatively, if the installer doesn’t mandate a “physical” volume to install from you can also extract the contents of the ISO file (archivers such as WinRAR are usually able to do this, but there’s also special software for this) and run the installer from there.

Sun Aug 02 18:58:21 AST 2009
Answer #: 4
This answer has received: 5 Votes.

I usually use PowerISO.

Sun Aug 02 19:05:44 AST 2009
Answer #: 5
This answer has received: 2 Votes.

There are a few alternatives in this question providing that your are running Windows.

I’m using MagicISO myself and it works fine, although you have to buy a license to open ISO files larger than 300MB. An alternative is MagicDisc, a freeware virtual drive from MagicISO that can be used to mount ISO files as virtual drives.

Sun Aug 02 20:11:28 AST 2009
Answer #: 6
This answer has received: 2 Votes.

There is a free program called AlZip that will let you open/extract an ISO file like a regular compressed file (zip, rar, etc) It also supports these other formats, of course. Get it here

edit: it used to be free (ad-supported) for non-commercial users, but they seem to have changed the policy recently…

Also check out all the other free utility programs this Korean company has created. I can’t remember if it was AlZip, but one of them adds a very useful “create new folder” context menu item.

Sun Aug 02 20:25:19 AST 2009
Answer #: 7
This answer has received: 0 Votes.

I use Total Commander plugin ISO:

It won’t open certain ISO files though.

Mon Aug 03 00:33:15 AST 2009
Answer #: 8
This answer has received: 0 Votes.

7Zip will allow you to extract ISO files, it also lets you extract the boot files from a Windows XP/Vista/7/etc ISO

Thu Oct 29 16:21:24 AST 2009
This question and its answers are found at: How do you extract/install from an .iso file?

Is there a keyboard shortcut to END an application? (more than just alt+f4)

This question has received: 23 Votes.

I use Spotify, an application which, like many others, remains running when you close the window. That is to say, when I alt+F4, it doesn’t have the desired effect. It only closes the window. The little icon at the bottom in the launch bar remains highlighted as an active application. You have to right click the icon and select “Quit” in order to truly close it. I don’t feel like doing that every time.

Is there a keyboard shortcut equivalent to the ctrl+alt+del end task?

Fri Jun 01 05:33:33 AST 2012
Answer #: 1
This answer has received: 11 Votes.

Depending upon the application and the layout of the menu in the application you may be able to press ALT + F followed by the X key. ALT + F opens the file menu and then X will exit the application. If this does not work look for a quit or exit button on the menu bar and press the corresponding underlined key. This should do the trick for you.

Fri Jun 01 12:06:20 AST 2012
Answer #: 2
This answer has received: 33 Votes.

Yes, there is. It’s Alt+F4.

This is the key combination to end a program. The only reason it doesn’t work as advertised is ignorant programmers who refuse to follow Microsoft design guidelines.

This problem would persist with any other hotkey as well. You could only possibly create a custom solution with AutoHotKey (or similar tools) that kills the process. But this would most likely make you lose a lot of work. As that is quite the brute force method to exit a process.

I want to know more!

OK, to my understanding, there are several ways a Windows application can be terminated.

  1. Posting a WM_CLOSE window message to the main application window.
  2. Destroying the main application window.
  3. Terminating the process.

The first way is the clean way. The way you’re intended to close an application. This is the same thing that Alt+F4 works. Pressing Alt+F4 will just send the WM_CLOSE message to the application window.

Now, let’s look at all 3 ways in reverse order.

Terminating a process

In Windows, an application lives in a process. Inside that process, the application may create a window. The window is what you will see on your desktop and what you will interact with.

So, if the process is the root of an application, if you terminate it, everything else will go away as well. So this would be great to fully end an application. But this will kill the application so abruptly, that it will have no chance to save any critical data to disk.

So this would not be recommended!

Destroying the main application window

As we just learned, the main application window is just part of the process. So if we just destroy that window, we’ll still have the process stinking up the place 🙁

And that would be even harder to get rid off than the application would have been.

This is most likely the nastiest approach to trying to end an application. Stay far away!

Posting a WM_CLOSE message

Windows is a message-based operating system. Meaning, components talk to each other by sending each other little messages.

One of these messages is the WM_CLOSE message.
If an application receives this message, it is agreed upon, that this application should seize all action and then life.

But every programmer can decide on his or her own how to handle the message.

As the documentation told us earlier, the default behavior would be to call DestroyWindow and, thus perform our application exit approach #2.
With the little difference that, this time, it’s intentional and the program has every chance to save critical data.


So, as you can see, we’re pretty much at the mercy of every programmer here. Or we take the risk of losing data (you don’t want to take that risk!).

Mon Jun 04 21:59:39 AST 2012
Answer #: 3
This answer has received: 5 Votes.

There are a number of things you can try if you can’t shut down a program with Alt-F4, besides killing the process (which I would only use a last resort). Though this has to be done on a per-program basis as there is no generalized solution.

  • You can try and find a command line option in the documentation that shuts down a program entirely. If it does not exist, you can contact the developer
  • Another option is to look in the preferences of a program for an option like “Pressing Alt-F4 terminates program instead of minimizing to SysTray”.
  • Some programs allow you to create user-defined hotkeys for actions like this.
  • Create a script with AutoHotkey that selects the option to terminate from the GUI. Something like “!fq” for “Access file menu with Alt-F then select the quit option”. You could restrict the hotkey to the program with #IfWinActive and assign the Alt-F4 hotkey.

Some examples:

  • In order to shutdown PhraseExpress, you’d have to create a shortcut to phraseexpress.exe with the parameter -shutdown.
  • In order to quit Word entirely, you could create a macro that does “application.quit”. This will attempt to close all instances of Word.
  • To close an AutoHotkey script, you’d have to have a shortcut to ExitApp somewhere in the script.

Just start using macros and after a while you will get the hang of it. AutoHotkey or AutoIt are good scripting languages for this kind of problem.

Fri Jun 01 13:36:47 AST 2012
Answer #: 4
This answer has received: 4 Votes.
  • Alt+F4 should close the current window, not necessarily cause the program to quit.
  • If it is the last window, the process will generally exit of its own accord.

There are exceptions such as programs which run in the background and do not normally show a window, except for notifications. For these Alt+F4 generally dismisses the notification and there is usually another way to make the program exit.

But the answer is: No, there is no keyboard shortcut for forcibly terminating a process. Shortcuts are for making frequent actions easier. Forcible termination should be a rare event, and therefore doesn’t get a shortcut.

  • Also, Ctrl+C generally causes console applications to quit (but not windows applications as it is the shortcut for “copy”). So does Ctrl+Break. In each case a “control hander” is called, which usually terminates the application, (but may not).
Fri Jun 01 13:07:46 AST 2012
Answer #: 5
This answer has received: 4 Votes.

Gnome HIG uses Ctrl-Q to close apps and Ctrl-W to close tabs.

Firefox, Eclipse and others support these.

Googling for Spotify and Ctrl-Q indeed reveals:

Fri Jun 01 13:13:44 AST 2012
Answer #: 6
This answer has received: 4 Votes.

You want to access the tray icon meny via the keyboard?

Start with WinB to focus on the tray ; if you need to access the additional hidden items, go to the arrow and hit space or enter, then go to the icon of the application, hit the menu key (between right Alt and Ctrl keys) and go with the arrows to the exit/quit menu entry.

Fri Jun 01 14:41:18 AST 2012
Answer #: 7
This answer has received: 1 Votes.

CtrlPause, which on my Dell is the blue Fn key and F12 / Pause.

So, I hold the blue function key, hold the Ctrl key and press F12.

Sun Dec 09 18:35:53 AST 2012
Answer #: 8
This answer has received: 0 Votes.

Is there a keyboard shortcut equivalent to the ctrl+alt+del end task?

Yes, should you really wish to access the Task Manager which allows you to end the process directly, you can use the following shortcut:

Ctrl + Shift + Esc

Thu Jul 26 01:53:24 AST 2012
Answer #: 9
This answer has received: 0 Votes.

alt+F4 no longer closes any windows. Change the registry key to 1 and it will close the windows, even if there are more tabs.

Value Name: NoWinKeys
Data Type: REG_DWORD (DWORD Value)
Value Data: (0 = disable restriction, 1 = enable restriction)  
Wed May 15 14:12:17 AST 2013

How can I open notepad as Admin only using Win + R window?

This question has received: 23 Votes.

If I open Win + R window and type notepad, then notepad opens.

How can I open it as admin the same way?

Wed Oct 09 19:14:07 AST 2013
Answer #: 1
This answer has received: 25 Votes.

Run Once as Admin

The command syntax you want to use is:

runas /user:<localmachinename>\administrator notepad

NOTE: Designating the machine name is optional. It works like this too:

runas /user:administrator notepad

Substitute administrator for the account name that has admin access. You will need to authenticate using this process.

As @EBGreen suggested in the comments, you can save the credential on the first execution and avoid reentering it on subsequent calls. This option only lasts for the existing logon session:

runas /user:administrator /savecred notepad


Always Run As Admin

You can also set it so that all programs run in admin mode. This is typically not recommended as UAC exists for a reason, but if you’re so inclined follow the steps here:

Always Run as Administrator

Wed Oct 09 20:28:58 AST 2013
Answer #: 2
This answer has received: 21 Votes.

As far as I know, this task will be started with Admin rights if it is started using WinKey+R when UAC is disabled

enter image description here

Anyway, you can do the same if you press WinKey key, type notepad in the Search field and press Ctrl + Shift + Enter

Thu Oct 10 05:56:21 AST 2013
Answer #: 3
This answer has received: 7 Votes.

If you don’t mind using a third party program, there are several programs named elevate.exe written by different people. These programs work (mostly) like this:

elevate.exe notepad.exe

and then a UAC dialog pops up. Confirm it and your notepad has admin privilege.

Here’s a blog post about this:

Thu Oct 10 06:17:49 AST 2013
Answer #: 4
This answer has received: 4 Votes.

I have another solution for you.

Press windows key, write down notepad and press ctrl+shift+enter

This will automatically open notepad (or any other programs windows searched for) as admin.



Thu Oct 10 09:52:21 AST 2013
Answer #: 5
This answer has received: 3 Votes.

The runas method often suggested has a major problem – it requires the use of a different account (Administrator), with the associated different profile. Administrator also happens to default to disabled. Running as any other standard administrative account actually uses the UAC-restricted token, defeating the purpose.

It is possible to elevate as your current user purely through the command line without third-party tools, though it’s a little more complicated. One way is through the PowerShell Start-Process commandlet. The full invocation is:

Start-Process -Verb "runas" notepad.exe

Shortening it, we can get:

start -verb runas notepad.exe

Running it from the command line, or from the Run dialog:

powershell -c start -verb runas notepad.exe

It’s also possible to save a script that can be run simply as elevate, like in AgreeOrNot’s answer – which, again, doesn’t require any third-party tools.

Thu Oct 10 06:33:26 AST 2013
Answer #: 6
This answer has received: 2 Votes.

This doesn’t quite answer your exact question but you can open notepad as admin by doing the following:

  • Press Windows Key
  • Type notepad
  • Press Ctrl+Shift+Enter
Thu Oct 10 09:02:10 AST 2013
Answer #: 7
This answer has received: 1 Votes.

There is a work around solution for this in Microsoft forum. copy paste below lines to a notepad and save it as sudo.cmd and place it in the system32 folder

@echo Set objShell = CreateObject(“Shell.Application”) > %temp%\sudo.tmp.vbs

@echo args = Right(“%“, (Len(“%“) – Len(“%1”))) >> %temp%\sudo.tmp.vbs

@echo objShell.ShellExecute “%1”, args, “”, “runas” >> %temp%\sudo.tmp.vbs

@cscript %temp%\sudo.tmp.vbs

Now, take a Run terminal and type sudo notepad

Hope this will help you.

Mon Oct 14 08:52:38 AST 2013
Answer #: 8
This answer has received: -1 Votes.

The Simplest Way I know to do this is to Right Click on the Normal Desktop Shortcut for the program, Choose Properties, Choose compatibility, Click off the “Run This Program as Administrator” then (if you choose) click “Change Settings for All users” This takes care of it and stays that way.

Wed Mar 19 05:18:47 AST 2014
This question and its answers are found at: How can I open notepad as Admin only using Win + R window?

How to write multi lines in one Excel cell?

This question has received: 36 Votes.

I want to write multi-lines in one MS Excel cell.

But whenever I press the Enter key, the cell editing ends and the cursor moves to next cell. How can I avoid this?

Sun Nov 22 13:16:42 AST 2009
Answer #: 1
This answer has received: 40 Votes.

What you want to do is to wrap the text in the current cell. You can do this manually by pressing Alt + Enter every time you want a new line

Or, you can set this as the default behaviour by pressing the Wrap Text in the Home tab on the Ribbon. Now, whenever you hit enter, it will automatically wrap the text onto a new line rather than a new cell.

enter image description here

Fri Oct 28 05:40:41 AST 2011
Answer #: 2
This answer has received: 21 Votes.

You have to use Alt+Enter to enter a carriage return inside a cell.

Tue Dec 20 05:09:35 AST 2011
Answer #: 3
This answer has received: 13 Votes.
  1. Edit a cell and type what you want on the first “row”
  2. Press one of the following, depending on your OS:

    Windows: Alt + Enter

    Mac: Ctrl + Option + Enter

  3. Type what you want on the next “row” in the same cell
  4. Repeat as needed.

Note that inserting carriage returns with the key combinations above produces different behavior than turning on Wrap Text. In the screenshot below, column A has the carriage returns and column B has Wrap Text turned on. Changing the width of a column with carriage returns doesn’t remove them. Changing the width of a column with Wrap Text turned on will change where the lines break.

In-cell line breaks in Excel

Wed Nov 14 01:55:43 AST 2012
Answer #: 4
This answer has received: 10 Votes.

Use the combination alt+enter

Sun Nov 22 13:33:57 AST 2009
Answer #: 5
This answer has received: 3 Votes.

Alt + Enter never worked for me. I had to go to Format Cells and make sure that the Number tab was set to Text. That allowed me to see exactly as I had input. My issue could have been Mac specific though.

Thu Sep 27 17:41:30 AST 2012
This question and its answers are found at: How to write multi lines in one Excel cell?